Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason why women have a longer life span than men? And why has this advantage gotten larger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, العاب زوجية psychological and environmental factors that all play a role in the longevity of women over men, we do not know what percentage each factor plays in.
In spite of the weight, we know that at least a portion of the reason why women live so much longer than men in the present however not as in the past, has to have to do with the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her brother.
It is interesting to note that although the female advantage exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.
The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
We will now examine how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at the time of birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand العاب زوجية out.
The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has grown significantly with time.
You can confirm that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.